Many years ago, **Matt** left a position where he developed in FORTRAN, and went off to do other things. The company hired a replacement, and since no one else really understood FORTRAN, they assumed things were fine. Over the course of a decade, their development costs got more expensive, their software got buggier, and deadlines started flying by without a single new feature being released. It took a long time, but they eventually fired Matt's replacement. Since Matt was looking for a new position around that time, he ended up back in the FORTRAN shop: just when he thought he was out, they pulled him back in.

Matt started going through the code that'd been implemented, and… well, here's an example function signature:

```
SUBROUTINE TREND_ORA_GET (AASTAT, DATATYPE, ORA_CODE
> , MON, YEAR, IN_OPTION, OUT_ARRAY)
```

Now, if you're reading this, you might think `OUT_ARRAY`

is an *output* parameter. You'd be mistaken. It's just the name of an array which happens to be defined in `Common`

(which is Fortran's term for global variables).

Inside this subroutine, the code starts by fetching some data from a database, and then starts doing things like:

```
IF (OUT_ARRAY(1:1) .EQ. 'G') THEN
IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'GRP ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. max_results) THEN
GRP (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
! IF (RNUM .LT.10) THEN
! WRITE (*,*) 'GRP(RNUM) = ',GRP(RNUM),TBLDATA(I)
! ENDIF
ENDDO
ENDIF
ENDIF
```

The first line, there, accesses the first element of the array, and compares it to `G`

- it's a "starts with" check. If it *starts* with `G`

, then we check if the array is equal to `GRP `

. Why the extra starts with? My only guess is that it's a micro-optimization to minimize the linear search on string comparisons.

If the array is `GRP `

, then we loop from 1 to `NID`

, and pull data out of the `TBLITEMS`

collection, collecting them into a `GRP`

collection. Why? I have no idea. The lines marked wit h`!`

are comments.

But we do this many, many more times, complete with the optimization(?) of checking the first character in `OUT_ARRAY`

.

```
IF (OUT_ARRAY(1:1) .EQ. 'M') THEN
IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'M6R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
M6R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
IF ((RNUM .EQ. 43357) .OR. (RNUM .EQ.43358)) THEN
M6R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
! WRITE (*,*) 'M6R(RNUM) = ',M6R(RNUM),'RNUM = ',RNUM,TBLDATA(I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'M5R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
M5R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
IF ((RNUM .EQ. 43357) .OR. (RNUM .EQ.43358)) THEN
M5R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
! WRITE (*,*) 'M5R(RNUM) = ',M5R(RNUM),'RNUM = ',RNUM,TBLDATA(I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'M4R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
M4R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
IF ((RNUM .EQ. 43357) .OR. (RNUM .EQ.43358)) THEN
M4R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
! WRITE (*,*) 'M4R(RNUM) = ',M6R(RNUM),'RNUM = ',RNUM,TBLDATA(I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'M3R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
M3R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
IF ((RNUM .EQ. 43357) .OR. (RNUM .EQ.43358)) THEN
M3R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
! WRITE (*,*) 'M3R(RNUM) = ',M3R(RNUM),'RNUM = ',RNUM,TBLDATA(I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'M2R ') THEN
! write (*,*)'NID = ', nid
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
M2R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
! If (tblitems (i) .gt. 60000) then
! write(*,*) 'tblitems(i) = ',tblitems(i), 'I = ',i
! endif
IF ((RNUM .EQ. 43357) .OR. (RNUM .EQ.43358)) THEN
M2R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
! WRITE (*,*) 'M2R(RNUM) = ',M2R(RNUM),'RNUM = ',RNUM,TBLDATA(I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'M1R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
M1R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
IF ((RNUM .EQ. 43357) .OR. (RNUM .EQ.43358)) THEN
M1R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
! WRITE (*,*) 'M1R(RNUM) = ',M1R(RNUM),'RNUM = ',RNUM,TBLDATA(I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ENDIF
ENDIF
IF (OUT_ARRAY(1:1) .EQ. 'Y') THEN
IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'Y1R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
Y1R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'Y2R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
Y2R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'Y5R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
Y5R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ENDIF
ENDIF
IF (OUT_ARRAY(1:1) .EQ. 'R') THEN
IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'R6R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
R6R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'R5R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
R5R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'R4R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
R4R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'R3R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
R3R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'R2R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
R2R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'R1R ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
R1R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ENDIF
ENDIF
IF (OUT_ARRAY(2:2) .EQ. 'Y') THEN
IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'PY5R') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
PY5R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'ZY1R') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
ZY1R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'RY1R') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
RY1R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'RY5R') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
RY5R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'RY6R') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF ((RNUM .GE. 15722) .AND. (RNUM .LE.15727)) THEN
RY6R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
! WRITE (*,*) 'RY6R(RNUM) = ',RY6R(RNUM),'RNUM = ',RNUM,TBLDATA(I)
ENDIF
IF ((RNUM .GE. 41708) .AND. (RNUM .LE.41759)) THEN
RY6R (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
! WRITE (*,*) 'RY6R(RNUM) = ',RY6R(RNUM),'RNUM = ',RNUM,TBLDATA(I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ENDIF
ENDIF
IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'TOT ') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
TOT (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ELSE IF (OUT_ARRAY .EQ. 'RTOT') THEN
DO I = 1, NID
RNUM = TBLITEMS (I)
IF (RNUM .LE. MAX_RESULTS) THEN
RTOT (RNUM) = TBLDATA (I)
ENDIF
ENDDO
ENDIF
```

I love this code sample, because I don't know Fortran, and it's *still* easy to see that this code is *bad*. It's repetitive, it's cryptic, and it's obviously fragile and difficult to modify. Matt adds:

The real WTF is, of course, that we're still using FORTRAN. That's because the customer still insists on their reports being produced on fan-feed line-printer (chunka-chunka-chunka) paper 122-columns wide etc. etc.